Under Penal Code 1000 PC, California has a “pretrial diversion program” (formerly known as “deferred entry of judgement” or “DEJ”) where the opportunity is given to non-violent drug criminals to receive treatment and education in place of jail time. This applies to simple possession of drugs.
Completing this program will lead to charges being dropped and no criminal record. Simple possession is defined as possession for personal use only—not to transport, sell, or distribute.
On January 1, 2018, PC 1000 drug diversion become a pretrial diversion program. In other words, a defendant may plead “not guilty” for their drug charges and will then be allowed to take a drug diversion program. When this program is completed, charges against the defendant will be dropped. If, however, the program is not completed, the defendant must instead go to a trial and will then be tried in typical fashion for his or her crimes.
Below are all the offenses that permit a defendant to partake in a Penal Code 1000 pretrial diversion program.
Below are the names of many of the drugs categorized as controlled substances under the above laws.
When it comes to drug diversion, the court is more concerned with whether or not the defendant would change after drug treatment or not and if they only had it for personal use. The specific drug used is not the deciding factor in whether a defendant can receive drug diversion.
The following conditions must be met in order to receive drug diversion under Penal Code 1000 PC:
The process begins with the prosecuting attorney deciding if the defendant is likely qualified for pretrial diversion. If this is the case, the prosecuting attorney will then write to the defendant and the defendant’s attorney that this course of action is advised.
The prosecutor will provide the following in a written notification of possible eligibility:
First, the case may be investigated by the Probation Department. The following aspect of the defendant maybe be examined:
A hearing will be held to decide if the defendant is qualified for pretrial diversion. The defendant must also consent at this court hearing to pretrial diversion.
Words spoken during probation are not to be used to prove the original charges made against you-- they will only be used to determine if education/treatment/rehabilitation would be the best course of action for you.
If an investigation takes place, the probation department will determine if the defendant would likely improve from taking a program. The court will take this into consideration.
If the defendant consents to the taking of a program, he or she will automatically plead not guilty and instead will go through a “speedy trial” followed by a “speedy preliminary hearing”, and finally trial by jury.
If it is decided by the court or by the defendant that he or she will not participate in a program, the normal proceedings for the crime will continue.
A pretrial drug diversion must meet the following:
Typically, the length of these programs lasts from 12 to 18 months. An extension may be allowed in some cases.
In order to tell if someone is complying with the program, a urine test will likely be administered during a pretrial diversion. If such a test is failed, rather than a new charge being given, the pretrial diversion will be failed.
Statements regarding the charged offense(s) during a drug diversion program will not be used against you.
A fee will be charged for probation supervision and for a pre-plea investigation report. The costs will range from $100 to $1,000 dollars.
Factors determining these fees are one’s financial abilities, the severity of the offense, and losses someone has suffered due to the drug crime.
In rare cases, the fees will be waived due to specific reasons.
The following medicines may be prescribed by a licensed healthcare professional to someone taking a pretrial diversion program (which will not result in failing the program):
Reasons for drug diversion failure include:
If you have violated the conditions of pretrial drug diversion, a court hearing will be held to determine if your drug diversion will be terminated.
If one completes pretrial diversion under Penal Code 1000, charges made against you will be dropped and you will not have to state that any of these charges were made against you when applying for a job, unless the job is in law enforcement.
These records may be sealed by the court, which will not prevent a criminal justice agency from accessing the records when applicable, nor does it prevent California agencies of licensing physicians, dentists, or pharmacists from taking disciplinary action against you or refusing to give you a license.
Other professional license agencies may also request information from these records.
Other Californian drug diversion programs are:
Prop. 36 is also a drug diversion program.
Prop. 36 is different from Penal Code 1000 in the following ways: